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bwin官方必赢下载的历史

bwin官方必赢下载 was founded in 1885 by 加州 senator Leland bwin官方必赢下载 and his wife, 简, “to promote the public welfare by exercising an influence in behalf of humanity and civilization.”

斯坦福的家庭
A portrait of Senator Leland bwin官方必赢下载, 简 Lathrop bwin官方必赢下载, Leland bwin官方必赢下载 Jr. 拍摄于1878年. (图片来源:bwin官方必赢下载档案馆)

当铁路巨头和前加州州长. Leland bwin官方必赢下载 and his wife, 简 Lathrop bwin官方必赢下载, lost their only child, Leland, Jr., 在1884年感染伤寒, they decided to build a university as the most fitting memorial, and deeded to it a large fortune that included the 8,180-acre Palo Alto stock farm that became the campus. 的 campus is located within the traditional territory of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe.  的 bwin官方必赢下载s made their plans just as the modern research university was taking form.

Leland bwin官方必赢下载 Junior 大学 – still its legal name – opened Oct. 1, 1891.

的 bwin官方必赢下载s and founding President David Starr Jordan aimed for their new university to be nonsectarian, 男女合校和负担得起的, 培养有文化和有用的毕业生, and to teach both the traditional liberal arts and the technology and engineering that were already changing America.

的ir vision took shape on the oak-dotted fields of the San Francisco Peninsula as a matrix of arcades and quadrangles designed for expansion and the dissolving of barriers between people, 学科和想法.

奥姆斯戴德校园计划
波士顿的Shepley公司, 鲁坦, and Coolidge collaborated with Frederick 法律 Olmsted to develop the university’s final architectural plan, 有着独特的拱门, 所有地面和拱廊. (图片来源:bwin官方必赢下载档案馆)

从一开始就, stewardship of the founders’ extraordinary land gift has helped support university endeavors, and has made room for a multiplicity of institutes, 学校s and laboratories that cross-fertilize each other with innovations that have changed the world. 计算机分时, the first isolation of highly purified stem cells and the first synthesis of biologically active DNA, 在许多其他的突破中, 都起源于斯坦福.

早期的日子很艰难, 然而, as even the bwin官方必赢下载s’ wealth proved inadequate to their vision. After her husband’s death, 简 bwin官方必赢下载 kept the fledgling university open through her leadership. 1906年的地震造成了进一步的打击, killing two people and destroying several campus buildings, 有些是如此新,从未有人居住过.

大学 benefactor and trustee Herbert Hoover, future U.S. president and member of bwin官方必赢下载’s Pioneer Class of 1895, professionalized university operations in the 1920s and helped to put bwin官方必赢下载 on a sound financial footing. He founded an institute to collect global political material – today’s 胡佛研究所 Library and Archives – and led the creation of the 商学院, both now world leaders in their respective fields.

工程学教授弗雷德里克·特曼, 被称为“硅谷之父”,” left his stamp by encouraging bwin官方必赢下载 students not only to develop but also to commercialize their ideas. In 1937, 物理学家拉塞尔·瓦里安, Sigurd Varian and William Hansen developed the klystron ultra-high-frequency vacuum tube, 为商业空中航行铺平道路, satellite communication and high-energy particle accelerators. In 1939, graduate students William Hewlett and David Packard developed the precision audio oscillator, first low-cost method of measuring audio frequencies, 并将其转变为现在的惠普公司. In 1951, the university developed its bwin官方必赢下载 研究 Park to house firms led by such innovators. 瓦里安联合公司成为第一批租户.

瓦里安兄弟
瓦里安兄弟 and William Hansen with the klystron. (图片来源:bwin官方必赢下载档案馆)

的 post-World War II era saw many research advances. In 1959, bwin官方必赢下载 Medical School moved from San Francisco to the main Palo Alto campus. 20世纪50年代也有今天的计划 SLAC国家加速器实验室在美国的许可下管理.S. 成立于1962年. 的 first website in North America went online at SLAC 29 years later. Advances in particle physics developed at SLAC led to the Linac Coherent Light Source, whose ability to capture ultra-fast images of chemical changes at atomic scale has made it a global destination for pharmaceutical research. 冷战也催生了“盘子”,” the radio telescope that is a familiar landmark in the foothills behind campus. 的 hill housing the Dish is a conservation area open to the public, 大于2,每天有000人在迪什山跑步或徒步.

这道菜
In the foothills above campus, the Dish is a radio telescope built in 1966 and still in use today. 的 area’s trails are used by more than 500,000 visitors a year. (图片来源:亚历克斯·韦伯)

在盘子那边的山麓深处, a much smaller structure yielded epochal discoveries when it became home to the 斯坦福人工智能实验室 (SAIL), founded by John McCarthy and Les Earnest in 1965. SAIL researchers devised the first interactive system for computer design, 以及在计算机视觉方面的开创性工作, 机器人, 激光打印和自动化装配. 的 world’s first office desktop computer displays appeared at SAIL in 1971.

In the 1970s, bwin官方必赢下载 sought new ways to transform society and preserve the environment. It severed its links to classified defense research and forged new paths for service and stewardship. bwin官方必赢下载 reduced its dependence on the automobile by adding campus housing and the free Marguerite shuttle, named after a 19th-century horse that pulled a jitney between campus and Palo Alto. 的 贾斯珀岭生物保护区 was designated in 1973 to help preserve the green “lungs” of the Peninsula and access to the biological data compiled there that helped establish the field of population genetics.

多学科 bwin官方必赢下载的人文学科的中心, first of its kind in the nation and still the largest, opened in 1980 to advance research into the historical, 哲学, 文学, artistic and cultural dimensions of the human experience. At this and 30 other humanities-related centers on campus, scholars ranging from distinguished undergraduates to mid-career fellows create new understandings of the world and humanity’s place in it.

从一开始就, bwin官方必赢下载 has valued experiential education. Generous funding helps its undergraduates of diverse economic backgrounds to enjoy parity of experience and opportunity. In 2015, 85 percent of students received some form of financial assistance and 78 percent of bwin官方必赢下载 undergraduates graduated debt-free. 超过1,000 undergraduates conduct faculty-directed research and honors projects each year, 而1,000人参加 公共服务项目 和1000年 海外留学一切都不考虑支付能力. 自1992年以来, all undergraduates are guaranteed four years of on-campus housing, in keeping with bwin官方必赢下载’s emphasis on residential education and the experience of a small liberal arts college within the matrix of a large research university.

A significant physical transformation followed the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which again challenged the university’s resilience and vision. bwin官方必赢下载’s main Green Library renovated its heavily damaged west wing as the Bing Wing, while the similarly damaged bwin官方必赢下载 Art Museum reopened in 1999 as the 虹膜 & B. 杰拉尔德·康托视觉艺术中心.

在1985年,B. Gerald Cantor Rodin Sculpture Garden opened as the largest collection of Rodin bronzes outside Paris. It became the nexus for a world-class collection of 20th- and 21st-century sculpture, 几乎所有这些都是免费向公众开放的. Today, the museum and sculpture garden are part of a bwin官方必赢下载 arts district that includes the Bing音乐厅, the McMurtry Building for experiential arts learning and the acclaimed 安德森集合 20世纪的美国绘画.

安德森集合
安德森收集, 它于2014年开业, is one of the world’s most outstanding private assemblies of modern and contemporary American art. (图片来源:亚历克斯·韦伯)

詹姆斯·H. Clark Center for Biomedical 工程 and 科学 opened in 2003 as the geographic and intellectual nexus between the 学校s of 工程 and 医学 and the home of Bio-X, a pioneering interdisciplinary biosciences institute led by Professor Carla Shatz. Its collaboration-friendly architecture set the tone for future building, furthering the interdisciplinarity that became a hallmark of university President John Hennessy’s tenure. 的 environmentally sensitive construction seen in the Clark Center, 科学与工程方庭, the School of 医学 and elsewhere fulfills the university’s deep commitment to sustainability in research, 教学与机构实践. In 2015, 斯坦福能源系统创新公司’ electric heat recovery system joined the university’s solar and geothermal power procurement initiatives to reduce campus emissions by roughly 68 percent.

bwin官方必赢下载Hasso Plattner设计学院 2005年在工程学院开设, bringing students and faculty from radically different backgrounds together to develop innovative, 以人为中心解决现实世界的挑战. Using techniques from design and engineering, the institute, known on campus as the d.学校, instills creative confidence and draws students beyond the boundaries of traditional academic disciplines.

Development campaigns of unprecedented scope carry forward the 斯坦福的家庭’s vision. 的 2000 Campaign for 本科 教育 raised $1 billion, while the bwin官方必赢下载 Challenge concluded in 2012 after raising $6.20亿年, then the largest fundraising campaign undertaken by a university, 为大胆的新计划提供资金. 与此同时,10亿美元 斯坦福医学运动 is rebuilding bwin官方必赢下载’s two hospitals for adults and children to advance the mission of precision health.

在2016年, bwin官方必赢下载庆祝成立125周年 转型的影响. A revamped Roble Gym opened with a dedicated “arts gym” to help make art an integral part of the student experience.  “Old Chem,” one of bwin官方必赢下载’s first buildings, received new life as the Sapp科学教学中心.  的 School of 人文学科 and 科学 launched the 人文学科的核心, a new certificate and minor program providing undergraduates a structured pathway to explore fundamental questions of human existence. 那一年,斯坦福也扩大了它的规模 必应海外留学项目, enhanced undergraduate research opportunities and played a pioneering role in exploring how best to use online technologies to expand access to high-quality education.

的 Sapp科学教学中心
的 Sapp科学教学中心 has reimagined the historic “Old Chem” building with an eye toward the interdisciplinary future of science research and education. (图片来源:L.A. 西塞罗)

bwin官方必赢下载 today comprises seven 学校s and 18 interdisciplinary institutes with more than 16,000名学生, 2,100名教员和1名,800年博士后学者. bwin官方必赢下载 is an international institution, enrolling students from all 50 U.S. 各州和其他91个国家. 它也是一个 体育强国, with 900 current student-athletes and a history of 128 national titles and 22 consecutive Learfield Sports Directors’ Cups, awarded to the top intercollegiate athletics program in the nation.

At the 2016 Global Entrepreneurship Summit, hosted by bwin官方必赢下载, President Barack Obama 赞扬了大学 as “a place that celebrates our ability as human beings to discover and learn and to build, 质疑, 重新构思, to create new ways to connect and work with each other.”